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Historical Antecedents of PT

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Date: Wed, 05 Jul 2000 22:21:29 -0400 (EDT)

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The following is the main text of a poster that was presented at the 1992 PT Conference in Park City, Utah: -- JE -------------------------------------------

Historical Antecedents of Precision Teaching Lisa Potts, John W. Eshleman, John O. Cooper The Ohio State University Poster presented at the Tenth Annual International Precision Teaching Conference, March 25-28, 1992, held at Park City, UT. Conference Theme: "An Educational Summit: Establishing America's Agenda For Accountability." Written history is a public interpretation of the people, things, and events that influenced a science's development and application. The people, things, events, inventions, and accomplishments presented in this chronology were complied in several ways. Journals and books provided essential information. The most important source for this account was, however, Ogden Lindsley himself. He gave a personal telephone interview at The Ohio State University that was tape recorded. Because Lindsley and his students established the basic practices that define this field, his interview provided the direction for this chronology. Development of the Standard Celeration Chart: 1. Development team: Ogden Lindsley, Eric Haughton, several graduate students, Sandy Houston (administrative assistant) & Helen Brennan (printer). 2. Size of the chart: Designed to fit on an overhead projector & computer screens. Landscape view adopted instead of portrait view. 3. Chart paper must be durable: At least 6 months. First printed on Kodak paper -- lasted only 2 months with daily charting. Next, printed on an imported cotton paper from Denmark--available for only a short time. Currently use Eagle Translucent A paper -- the most durable paper made in the United States. 4. Chart color: Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and light brown were tested. Color preference was a shade of green. But the light blue chart produced the highest accuracy and was more resistant to fatigue. 5. A six cycle chart contains a sufficient range of frequencies for human behavior. 6. Calendar days changed from a calendar year to 20 weeks. A factor: The angle from the lower left corner to the upper right corner of the chart controlled the number of days. This angle must show a doubling in weekly celeration. Technological Developments: 1. The Standard Celeration Chart with standard slopes. Derived from cumulative record. (The cumulative record was a standard frequency chart). X2 = 34 degrees. 2. Plain English. Technical jargon is translated into plain English words, acronyms, letter codes & simple tests. PRACTICED MUSIC REAPS FUN, SURA! (Can you see/say these acronyms?) 3. Behavior Bank (1967 - 1971). An IBM mainframe computer stored daily behavior frequencies and descriptions of the projects. 4. "The learner knows best." Students self-record, chart, make decisions and develop their own improvement plans. 5. Fluency Timings. Counting peroids are used to assess fluency. But also, they are an instructional procedure for building fluent behavior. 6. Learning Pictures. Frequencies of correct and incorrect counts are displayed on the standard celeration chart. Rules for instructional decisions are based on learning pictures. 7. Learning Channels. See/say, hear/say, touch/say, see/write, hear/type, sniff/feel, etc. 8. SAFMEDS. Say All Fast a Minute Each Day Shuffled is a practice method developed by Lindsley and Graf. Scientific Influences from 1748-1964: Julien Offray de LaMettrie (1709-1751). Wrote L'Homme Machine (1748). Claude Bernard (1813-1878). Wrote Introduction a la etude de la medecine experimentelle (1865). Physiologist & founder of experimental medicine. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Wrote Conditioned Reflexes (1927). Functional relations between antecedent stimuli and responses. Named basic terms used in behavior analysis. Lindsley influenced by Pavlov in 3 ways: Observation, patience, & committment. Pavlov collected more data than needed & had high induction ratio. Walter S. Hunter (1880-1954). Believed all behavior is similar. Taught Lindsley behavioristic philosophies. Gregory A. Kimble (1948). Lindsley worked with Kimble while at Brown. Environmental influences on behavior. Carl Pfaffmann (1948). Electrophysiologist. Demonstrated that doing scientific research does not always require funding from independent sources (grants, etc.). B.F. Skinner (1904-1990). Wrote Behavior of Organisms (1938); Science and Human Behavior (1953); Schedules of Reinforcement (1957, with C.B. Ferster). Discovered free operant conditioning & importance of frequency as dependent variable. Invented cumulative recorder & cumulative record. Lindsley was one of BFS's students. Skinner had high induction ratio. Natural Science 114. Lindsley was a graduate student in this course on the experimental analysis of behavior taught by Skinner. Fred S. Keller (1899-199? ). Wrote Principles of Psychology (with W.N. Schoenfeld). First easy to read textbook in behavior analysis. Methods, concepts, & principles derived from B.F. Skinner's work. First Human Operant Lab (1953). Established at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Behavior Research Laboratory. "Behavior Therapy." (1955). Term coined by Lindsley. Lindsley discovered that rate of response was the most sensitive measurement for testing the effects of drugs. Ogden R. Lindsley. (1964). Wrote Direct Measurement and Prosthesis of Retarded Behavior. Og's first major publication addressing specifically the education of persons with special needs. This paper can be said to mark the official beginning of Precision Teaching. Classroom Applications (1965). In 1965, Precision Teaching was used in a self-contained special education classroom of the Children's Rehabilitation Unit at the University of Kansas Medical Center. Standard Behavior Chart (1965). Now named the Standard Celeration Chart. The chart evolved from Skinner's cumulative record (which is a standard frequency chart). Both charts have standard slopes. Both charts display major changes in behavior (e.g., doublings, triplings, quadruplings, etc.). First Special Issue of Teaching Exceptional Children (1971). Pennypacker, H.S., Koenig, C.H., & Lindsley, O.R. (1972). Wrote the Handbook of the Standard Behavior Chart. Comprehensive manual that describes charting on the Standard Celeration Chart. Let's Try Doing Something Else Kind of Thing (1972). Contained many PT articles. Midwestern Association of Behavior Analysis (started 1975 - present). Became Association for Behavior Analysis in 1979. Precision Teaching research papers, symposia, posters, and chart shares have been a yearly feature of ABA conventions. What We Know That Ain't So. (1977). Presentation by Lindsley at MABA, which described Learning Pictures and identified myths about learning. International Precision Teaching Conferences (started 1980 - present). Journal of Precision Teaching (1980-1986, 1990-present). First Editor Pat McGreevy. Second Editor Claudia McDade This poster does not cover all of the historical developments that lead to Precision Teaching, nor does it list all the significant events that have occurred during the history of Precision Teaching. We therefore invite you to add to the history; to make this an "interactive poster." So, if you think that some event or detail or person's name or whatever should be added, please write it in below:

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