• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Files spread between Dropbox, Google Drive, Gmail, Slack, and more? Dokkio, a new product from the PBworks team, integrates and organizes them for you. Try it for free today.


Repeated reading and reading fluency

Page history last edited by PBworks 11 years, 10 months ago










Repeated Reading

Jim Wright. The Savvy Teacher’s Guide: Reading Interventions That Work


Straightforward description of Repeated Reading.


Some reading aims



References and Research Papers


Blum, I.H., & Koskinen, P.S. (1991). Repeated reading: A strategy for enhancing fluency and fostering expertise. Theory Into Practice, 30(3), 195-200.

Carroll, C.L., McCormick, S., & Cooper, J.O. (1991). Repeated readings and Precision Teaching: Increasing reading fluency of intermediate students with severe reading disabilities and severe behavior handicaps. Journal of Precision Teaching, 8, 16-26.

Cartledge, GRepeated Reading: A fluency building strategy

Web document Accessed 3 April 2008.

Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers’ fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.

Heckelman, R.G. (1966). Using the neurological impress remedial technique. Academic Therapy Quarterly, 1, 235-239.

Henk, W.A., Helfeldt, J.P., & Platt, J.M. (1986). Developing reading fluency in learning disabled children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 17, 202-206.

Herman, P.A. (1985). The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 553-565.

Koskinen, P.S., & Blum, I.H. (1984). Repeated oral reading and the acquisition of fluency. In J.A. Niles & L.A. Harris (Eds.), Changing perspectives on reading/language processing and instruction, (pp. 183 - 187). Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Kubina, R. M. (2005). Developing reading fluency through a systematic practice procedure.  Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 185-192.

O'Shea, L.J., & O'Shea, D.J. (1988). Using repeated reading. Teaching Exceptional Children, 20, 26-29.

O'Shea, L.J., Sindelar, P.T., & O'Shea, D.J. (1985). The effects of repeated readings and attentional cues on reading fluency and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior, 17, 129-142.

Rashotte, C.A. & Torgesen, J.K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 180-188.

Rasinski, T.V. (1990). Effects of repeated reading and listening-while-reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83(3), 147-150.

Samuels, S.J. (1979). The method of repeated reading. The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.

Sweeney, W.J., Omness, C.K., Janusz, K.L., & Cooper, J.O. (1992). Adult literacy and Precision Teaching: Repeated readings and see/cover/write practice to improve reading and spelling. The Journal of Precision Teaching, 9(1), 6-19.

Therrien, W. J., & Kubina, R. M. (2006). Developing reading fluency with repeated reading. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41, 156-160.

Weinstein, G., & Cooke, N.L. (1992). The effects of two repeated reading interventions on generalization of fluency. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15(1), 21-28.



This Bibliography of Articles on Repeated Readings was compiled by John Cooper, Ph.D., and broadcast over the SCListServe, 7-9-2000. Retrieved from The Learning Incentive, 3 April, 2008





Example of an assessment/curriculum decision tree, including repeated reading and precision teaching




Roxanne Hudson(2006). Reading Fluency: What, Why, & How Powerpoint

Presentation at Massachusetts Reading First Conference


References and Research Papers


Allington, R. L. (1983). Fluency: The neglected reading goal. The Reading Teacher, 556-561.

Anderson, B. (1981). The missing ingredient: Fluency and oral reading. The Elementary School Journal, 81(3), 173-177.

Aulls, M. W. (1978). Developmental and remedial reading in the middle grades. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Bear, D. (1991). "Learning to fasten the seat of my union suit without looking around": The synchrony of literacy development. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 149-157.

Beck, R., & Clement, R. (1991). The Great Falls Precision Teaching project: An historical examination. Journal of Precision Teaching,

8(2), 8-12.

Biemiller, A. (1977-1978). Relationship between oral reading rates for letters, words, and simple text in the development of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 8(2), 223-253.

Binder, C. (1993). Behavioral fluency: A new paradigm. Educational Technology.

Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 163-197.

Binder, C., Haughton, E. & Van Eyck, D. (1990). Increasing endurance by building fluency: Precision teaching attention span. Teaching Exceptional Children, 24-27.

Breznit, Z. (1987). Increasing first graders' reading accuracy and comprehension by accelerating their reading rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 236-242.

Breznitz, Z. (1991). The beneficial effect of accelerating reading rate on Dyslexic readers' reading comprehension. M. Snowling, & M. Thomson (editors), Dyslexia:Integrating theory and practice (pp. 235-243). London: Whurr Publishing Ltd.

Breznitz, Z., & Share, D. L. (1992). Effects of accelerated reading rate on memory for text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 193-199.

Deno, S. L., Mrikin, P. K., & Chiang, B. (1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional Children, 49(1), 36-45.

Dowhower, S. L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4), 389-406.

Dowhower, S. L. (1991). Speaking of prosody: Fluency's unattended bedfellow. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 165-175.

Downs, J., & Morin, S. (1990). Improving reading fluency with precision teaching . Teaching Exceptional Children, 38-40.

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1992). Identifying a measure for monitoring student reading progress. School Psychology Review, 21(1), 45-58.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Maxwell, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9(2), 2028.

Hasbrouk, J. E., & Tindal, G. (1992). Curriculum-Based oral reading fluency norms for students in grades 2 through 5. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41-44.

Haughton, E. C. (1997). Practicing practices: learning by activity. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 15(1), 75-91.

Homan, S. P., Klesius, J. P., & Hite, C. (1993). Effects of repeated readings and nonrepetitive strategies on students' fluency and comprehension . Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 94-99.

Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T. V. J. (1992). Breaking the structuralist barrier: Literacy and numeracy with fluency. American Psychologist, 47(11), 1475-1490.

Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T. V. J. (1994). The Morningside model of generative instruction. R. Garnder, D. Sainato, J. Cooper, T. Heron, W.

Heward, J. Eshleman, & T. Grossi (Editors), Behavioral analysis in education: Focus on measureably superior instruction (pp. 173-197). Belmont, CA: Brooks-Cole.

Johnson, K. R., & Layng, T. V. J. (1996). On terms and procedures:fluency. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 281-288.

Koorland, M. A., Keel, M. C., & Ueberhorst, P. (1990). Setting aims for precision teaching. Teaching Exceptional Children,64-66.

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychologist, 6, 293-323.

Lindsley, O. (1992). Precision teaching: discoveries and effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 51-57.

Lindsley, O. R. (1991). Precision Teaching's unique legacy from B.F. Skinner. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(2), 253-266.

Lipson, M. Y., & Lang, L. B. (1991). Not as easy as it seems: Some unresolved questions about fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 218-227.

Mercer, C. D., Mercer, A. R., & Evans, S. (1982). The use of frequency in establishing instructional aims. Journal of Precision Teaching, 3(3), 57-62.

Nathan, R. G., & Stanovich, K. E. (1991). The causes and consequences of differences in reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 176-184.

Perfetti, C. A., & Hogaboam, T. (1975). Relationship between single word decoding and reading comprehension skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67(4), 461-469.

Rasinski, T. V. (1989). Fluency for everyone: Incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 690-693.

Rasinski, T. V. (1990). Investigating measures of reading fluency. Educational Research Quarterly, 14(3), 37-44.

Samuels, S. J. (1997). The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher, 50(5), 376-381.

Samuels, S. J., Schermer, N., & Reinking, D. (1992). Reading fluency: Techniques for making decoding automatic. S. J. Samuels, & A. E. Fartrup (editors), What research has to say about reading instruction (2 ed., pp. 124-144). Newark, Delaware: IRA.

Schreiber, P. A. (1980). On the acquisition of reading fluency. Journal of Reading Behavior, 7(3), 177-186.

Schreiber, P. A. (1991). Understanding prosody's role in reading acquisition. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 158-164.

Shinn, M. R., Good, R. H., Knutson, N., & Tilly, W. D. (1992). Curriculum-Based measurement of oral reading fluency: A confirmatory analysis of its relation to reading. SchoolPsychology Review, 21(3), 459-479.

Spence, I., & Hively, W. (1993). What makes Chris practice? Educational Technology, 15-20.

Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Word recognition: Changing perspectives. R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson Handbook of reading research vol. II (Vol. 2, pp. 418-452). New York: Longman Publishing Group.

Stayter, F. Z., & Allington, R. L. Fluency and the understanding of texts. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 143-148.

Torgeson, J. K. Computers and cognition in reading: A focus on decoding fluency. Exceptional Children, 53(2), 157-162.

Weinstein, G., & Cooke, N. L. (1992). The effects of two repeated reading interventions on generalization of fluency. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 21-28.

Zutell, J., & Rasinski, T. V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their students' reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 211-217.

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.