• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • You already know Dokkio is an AI-powered assistant to organize & manage your digital files & messages. Very soon, Dokkio will support Outlook as well as One Drive. Check it out today!



Page history last edited by Regina Claypool-Frey 14 years, 7 months ago


Return to OTHER PT TOPICS and FAQs 

Say-All-Fast-Minute-Each-Day-Shuffled = SAFMEDS

Stack of cards 






A 30-second timing. A note: This student is probably at the "before" stage of SAFMEDS and an "after' comparison would be nice to have.

Maybe that will be posted on Yahoo! at a later date. Consider it a general idea.



Intro to SAFMEDS, John W. Eshleman, Ed.D., BCBA


Guidelines and Considerations for SAFMEDS ("Saff-meds")


Note: This is considered to be one of the best descriptions of SAFMEDS on the web.

  • Introduction
  • Creating SAFMEDS
  • Examples and Nonexamples of SAFMEDS
  • --Criticisms
  • --Comments
  • Stimulus Control Considerations
  • --SAFMEDS Issues
  • SAFMEDS Deck Considerations.
  • Using SAFMEDS
  • SAFMEDS Performance Criteria
  • Mini Review of Graf's (2000) Text



Table: How SAFMEDS differ from flashcards

Picture of ringbound cards

SAFMEDS Flashcards
May be made by instructor
BUT preferably by learner
Made by instructor or learner
Size: business card to 3x5* Usu. 3x5 or larger
Entire set available from start Only partial set may be available
Response is said aloud Response is thought or said
Work on entire deck Work only on current topic or subset
Front of card is detailed Front of card less detailed than back
Back of card/response is short More detailed than front
Timed Untimed
Practice has speed emphasis Practice is leisurely
Say answer without looking  
Practice timing is 1 min. or less Not timed
Focus is on speed as well as accuracy on accuracy
Practice at least daily Sporadically or as test-review
Shuffled before each timing May or may not be shuffled
Tested by 20-sec timing By skill transfer to other task
Correct & incorrects charted Generally not charted


* Inkjet business cards at office supplies for about $25-$50/1000.

Another option is to print cardstock in word processing and cut with a paper cutter.

For hand-written cards: 1000 pk Blank 2x3 Flash Cards




$ Graf,S. and Lindsley, O. (2002) CH 12: Fluency, Timings, SAFMEDS and Practice Sheets, p. 18

Standard Celeration Charting 2002. Youngstown, OH: Graf Implements.

Available at the Behavior Research Company and Behavior Development Solutions



Zero Bros. SAFMEDS instructional package

The Zero Bros. were originally Dr. Steve Graf, Dr. Ogden Lindsley and Dr. Jack Auman.

Since Dr. Lindsley's death in 2004, the two Zero Bros. carry on.  

This package is considered THE how-to on SAFMEDS by them in the know.





An awesome discussion on SAFMEDS and ANALYSIS


4/26/07 I asked John W.Eshleman, Ed.D, BCBA, a few newbie questions, and he, being the consummate teacher, did not give me a quick and facile answer but rather a [detailed and elegant discussion of SAFMEDS and instruction.


(Thank you John).



Online SAFMEDS references & examples


Say Facts or SAFMEDS

Brief description.


SAFMEDS for Exceptional Children, 8th Edition by William L. Heward

Definitions for the text and data sheets


SAFMEDS for BEHV 5250: Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism III: Advanced topics in intervention

How to make cards for the activity and discusses charting progress on a Daily per Minute Standard Celeration Chart EC-11. Charting conventions, chart standards, chart templates and Definitions.

Michael A. Fabrizio, MA, BCBA



Vocabulary and Concept Practice Cards (SAFMEDS)

Susan L. Fister Mulkey, M.Ed, Susan L. Fister, Mulkey Educational Consulting and Training.

Indiana Designs Equitable Access for Learning (IDEAL)


...The specific procedures outlined have also been referred to as SAFMEDS (Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled) in the literature. SAFMEDS provide students with practice to build fluency after the initial acquisition stage of learning (when the student knows how to perform the skill correctly but lacks fluency). SAFMEDS involve daily time trials (allowing students the opportunity to perform a skill as many times as possible during a brief time period).


The concept of one-minute timed practices involved in this strategy have also been validated in the field of Precision Teaching, which was first conceptualized by Ogden R. Lindsley, Professor Emeritus, University of Kansas. Lindsley coined the term SAFMEDS...





Example of SAFMEDS for learning text definitions

SAFMEDS for Exceptional Children 8th Edition

William L.Heward



Journal Articles and Presentations


Clorfene, J.B., Matsumoto, J. Bergman, M., Zhang, M., & Merbitz, C.T. (1998). Unexpected effects of using SAFMEDS to teach taxonomy. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 15(2), 28-33.


Eshleman, J. W. (1985). Improvement pictures with low celerations: An early foray into the use of SAFMEDS. Journal of Precision Teaching, 6(3), 54-63.


Graf, S.A. (1986). SAFMEDS & TAFMEDS: Blending precision teaching with microcomputer technology. Paper presented at the sixth annual meeting of the Precision Teaching Conference, Utah.


Graf, S.A. (1994). How to develop, produce and use SAFMEDS in education and training. Youngstown, OH: Zero Brothers Software.


McDade, C.E., & Olander, C.P. (1990). SAFMEDS design: A comparison of three protocols. Journal of Precision Teaching, 7(2), 69-73.


McDade, C.E., Austin, D.M., & Olander, C.P. (1985). Technological advances in precision teaching: A comparison between computer-testing and SAFMEDS. Journal of Precision Teaching, 6(3), 49-53.



DISCLAIMER: The information on this site is presented on an "as is" basis, and does not claim to present definitive information, make recommendation or to represent such official bodies such as the Standard Celeration Society. Users of this site agree that the owner of the site or authors of pages and articles are indemnified against legal liability 


Fair Use Clause

These pages may contain copyrighted (© ) material and is made available under the "fair use" clause for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research, etc. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior general interest in receiving similar information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.





Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.