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A 30-second timing. A note: This student is probably at the "before"

stage of SAFMEDS and an "after' comparison would be nice to have.

Maybe that will be posted on Yahoo! at a later date. Consider it a

general idea.





How SAFMEDS differ from flashcards

Made by instructorMade by instructor or learner
Size: business card to 3x5Usu. 3x5 or larger
Entire set available from startOnly partial set may be available
Response is said aloudResponse is thought or said
Work on entire deckWork only on current topic or subset
Front of card is detailedFront of card less detailed than back
Back of card/response is shortMore detailed than front
Practice has speed emphasisPractice is leisurely
Say answer without looking
Practice timing is 1 min. or lessNot timed
Focus is on speed & accuracyon accuracy
Practice at least dailySporadically or as test-review
Shuffled before each timingMay or may not be shuffled
Tested by 20-sec timingBy skill transfer to other task



$ Graf,S. and Lindsley, O. (2002) CH 12: Fluency, Timings, SAFMEDS and Practice Sheets, p. 18

Standard Celeration Charting 2002. Youngstown, OH: Graf Implements.

Available at the Behavior Research Company and Behavior Development Solutions



An awesome discussion on SAFMEDS and ANALYSIS


4/26/07 I asked John W.Eshleman, Ed.D, BCBA, a few newbie questions, and he, being the consummate teacher, did not give me a quick and facile answer but rather a detailed and elegant discussion of SAFMEDS and instruction.


(Thank you John).





Online SAFMEDS references & examples


Say Facts or SAFMEDS

Brief description.



Guidelines and Considerations for SAFMEDS ("Saff-meds")

John W. Eshleman, Ed.D.

Note: This is considered to be one of the best descriptions of SAFMEDS on the web.

  • Introduction
  • Creating SAFMEDS
  • Examples and Nonexamples of SAFMEDS
  • --Criticisms
  • --Comments
  • Stimulus Control Considerations
  • --SAFMEDS Issues
  • SAFMEDS Deck Considerations.
  • Using SAFMEDS
  • SAFMEDS Performance Criteria
  • Mini Review of Graf's (2000) Text



Vocabulary and Concept Practice Cards (SAFMEDS)

Susan L. Fister Mulkey, M.Ed, Susan L. Fister, Mulkey Educational Consulting and Training.

Indiana Designs Equitable Access for Learning (IDEAL)


Constructing SAFMEDS

Using Vocabulary Practice Cards or SAFMEDS

Resources and References


...The specific procedures outlined have also been referred to as SAFMEDS (Say All Fast Minute Every Day Shuffled) in the literature. SAFMEDS provide students with practice to build fluency after the initial acquisition stage of learning (when the student knows how to perform the skill correctly but lacks fluency). SAFMEDS involve daily time trials (allowing students the opportunity to perform a skill as many times as possible during a brief time period).



The concept of one-minute timed practices involved in this strategy have also been validated in the field of Precision Teaching, which was first conceptualized by Ogden R. Lindsley, Professor Emeritus, University of Kansas. Lindsley coined the term SAFMEDS...





Example of SAFMEDS for learning text definitions

SAFMEDS for Exceptional Children 8th Edition

William L.Heward



Zero Bros. SAFMEDS instructional package

The Zero Bros. were originally Dr. Steve Graf, Dr. Ogden Lindsley and Dr. Jack Auman.

Since Dr. Lindsley's death in 2004, the two Zero Bros. carry on.


This package is considered THE how-to on SAFMEDS by them in the know.




Journal Articles and Presentations

Clorfene, J.B., Matsumoto, J. Bergman, M., Zhang, M., & Merbitz, C.T. (1998). Unexpected effects of using SAFMEDS to teach taxonomy. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 15, No. 2, 28-33.


Graf, S.A. (1986). SAFMEDS & TAFMEDS: Blending precision teaching with microcomputer technology. Paper presented at the sixth annual meeting of the Precision Teaching Conference, Utah.


Graf, S.A. (1994). How to develop, produce and use SAFMEDS in education and training. Youngstown, OH: Zero Brothers Software.


McDade, C.E., & Olander, C.P. (1990). SAFMEDS design: A comparison of three protocols. Journal of Precision Teaching, 7, No. 2, 69-73.


McDade, C.E., Austin, D.M., & Olander, C.P. (1985). Technological advances in precision teaching: A comparison between computer-testing and SAFMEDS. Journal of Precision Teaching, 6, 49-53.







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